為什麼説在大爆炸的框架星系不能形成

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為什麼説在大爆炸的框架星系不能形成

文章 bps267890 » 週三 22 3月, 2017 12:02

平時我們常説星系是由大爆炸後的高度均勻物質在自引力作用下形成的結團物質,咋一聽似乎有道理,但細想起來這種説法卻是不能成立的。首先,我們應當認識到在物質均勻分佈的各向同性的宇宙空間,引力現象不能存在。道理很簡單,因為在這樣的空間,任何粒子在各個方向上所受的引力的合外力為零,粒子實際上處於不受引力作用的自由狀態。換句話説,引力現象只能是結團物質的行為,在物質不結團的情況下引力現象不會出現。注意,這裡所説的粒子可以是分子,原子,核子或其他粒子。其二,我們還應明白物質之間存在著擴散現象,即物質具有從高濃度區域到低濃度區域主動輸運的趨勢,而且溫度愈高這種趨勢愈加強烈。物質的這種擴散作用會使宇宙裏的物質的分佈愈來愈均勻。按大爆炸學説,早期的宇宙物質分佈的均勻度是相當高的,即宇宙裏的物質密度起伏非常之微弱,因此由此産生的引力效應必是微不足道的,不可能與擴散作用相抗衡使宇宙裏的物質出現匯聚現象,所謂的在自引力作用下物質聚集的説法是無法實現的,宇宙裏的物質分佈只能是愈來愈均勻的,這正是熱力學第二定律的要求,熱力學第二定律認為一切自然過程都是熵增的過程,即從有序的機械運動過程到無序的熱運動的過程,而不是相反-----結團過程是從無序到有序的熵減過程,因此我們説大爆炸框架裏的星系形成過程是違背熱力學第二定律的。

擴散作用使物質分佈趨於均勻,而絕對均勻的宇宙空間不存在引力現象,這是理解大爆炸框架宇宙物質分佈只能愈來愈均勻,不可能結團的關鍵。主流宇宙學家在研究大爆炸框架下星系形成問題時,常忽視物質的擴散作用,只考慮引力的匯聚作用,得出的星系形成機制必然是錯誤的。還應注意,宇宙的膨脹只能推遲宇宙裏物質的聚集,但不能完全阻止物質的聚集,正是物質的這種擴散作用從根本上阻止了物質的聚集。我們説擴散效應與引力效應相比一直處於主導地位,這是由宇宙裏物質分佈的實際情況或初始條件決定的,微波背景輻射的觀測表明宇宙早期物質分佈相當均勻的,而且愈早愈均勻,這就決定了物質不能聚集,這與金斯自引力作用是一致的,金斯理論認為物質能否匯聚在於擴散作用與匯聚作用之間的鬥爭。那麼那麼星系到底是如何形成的呢?我們説星系是逐漸增長形成的,新物質在天體內連續生成,星系和空間一起按哈勃方案膨脹,請看本作者最近發表在《前沿科學》雜誌上2016 年第3期的文章 “星系是逐漸增長形成的而非大爆炸後物質的聚集” 。在這篇文章裏系統地論述了星系(包括天體)的形成過程,從不同的角度用大量的事實批駁了大爆炸學説的錯誤。

Why say galaxies could not form in big bang framework

We often say that the galaxies came from agglomerates of highly uniform material after big bang under the action of self-gravity, this sounds plausible, but on reflection this argument is not valid. First of all, we should recognize that in the isotropic space whose material uniformly distribute the gravitational phenomena can not exist . The reason is very simple, in this space the resultant of gravitational force in all directions for any particle is zero, the particle is actually under the free state of thermal motion. In other words, gravitational phenomenon only belongs to the behavior of agglomerate material, and gravitational phenomenon does not exist if universal material does not agglomerate. Note that here the particles can be molecular, atomic, nuclear or other. Secondly, we should also understand the existence of diffusion phenomena between substances, namely material can actively transport from a high concentration’s region to a region of low concentration, the higher temperature is, the more significant diffusion’s trend is. The effect of material diffusion make material distribution more uniform. According to the big bang theory, in the early universe the uniformity of material distribution was very high therefore it was impossible there existed significant gravitational phenomena, actually the gather of matter could not achieve. Even if some accidental factors made the distribution of material somewhere in the universe slightly deviated from the uniform state, this significant effect of diffusion would eliminate the deviation at once, and the distribution tends to balance and the gravitational phenomenon could not appear yet, the effect of diffusion has been in a dominant position all along, so we say the galaxies could not form in the big bang framework.
The effect of diffusion make material distribution tend uniform, and in the uniform space there is no gravitational phenomenon, this is the key basis of understanding material could not agglomerate in the big bang framework. Most of cosmologists are always ignoring the diffusion effect of substances and especially can not understand the destructiveness of diffusion to gravitational action, so the given mechanism of galaxy formation is certainly wrong. Note that the expansion of the universe only can delay the gather of material but not prevent the gather, it is the diffusion effect that fundamentally prevents material gather. That is to say, if the material distribution is uniform, then can only be more even, which is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that any natural process is a process from order to disorder, namely the entropy increase process. And the process of galaxy formation given by big bang theory is a process from the thermal motion of the disordered state to the orderly mechanical motion, so we say that the the process galaxy formation of big bang theory went against the laws of thermodynamics. Then, how did galaxies form after all? We say the galaxy formed from gradual growth rather than the gather of existent material after big bang. Please see the present author’s recent paper ‘Modification of Field Equation and Return of Continuous Creation----- Galaxies Form from Gradual Growth Instead of Gather of Existent Matter’ . In the paper systematically discusses the galaxy formation process, and criticizes the errors in big bang theory from different angles with a large number of facts.

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